Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early pathogenic feature of cardiovascular morbidities, consisting of impaired vasodilation, angiogenesis and barrier function.
It has been related to metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity or metabolic syndrome all of them also associated with cardiovascular diseases.
The key role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of ED is well established. 

Pathological status

Healthy Endothelium

Healthy endothelium • Non-permeable • Anti-inflammatory • Anti-thrombotic

Endothelial Dysfunction

Pathological status • Increase in permeability
   - Increase in vascular permeability due to damage to tight junction
• Vessel wall inflammation
   - Infiltrated leukocytes induce abnormal inflammation
• Thrombosis
   - Thrombosis due to inflammation
• Angiogenesis
   - Formation of new vessels from pre-existing vessel

Adapted from Frontiers in Medicine (2022)


Since endothelial dysfunction is related to blood vessels, and blood vessels run through the body, Endothelial Dysfunction is systemic and is closely associated with many diseases, such as retinopathy, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

Diseases Curacle’s Publications
Diabetic retinopathy Euro J Phar (2011)
Myocardial infarction
(ischemia-reperfusion injury)
Exp Mol Med (2022)
(ischemia-reperfusion injury)
J Mol Med (2020)
J Neuroinflammation (2017)
Ulcerative colitis Front. Pharmacol. (2020)
Tumor Oncotarget (2014)
anti-angiogenic agent combination BBRC (2014)
Anti-PD1 combination Front. Immunol. (2021)

Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (2019)

Current treatment

The current treatment strategy focuses on a single target or dual targets at most. That single target could be a cytokine, as in the case of Anti-TNF or different enzymes, etc.
Highly effective protector of endothelial dysfunction working independently on multiple mediators.

Indication MOA
Diabetic macular edema Anti-VEGF
Anti-VEGF & Ang 2 inhibitor
Myocardial infarction P2Y12 platelet inhibitor
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
factor Xa inhibitor
Stroke P2Y12 platelet inhibitor
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Ulcerative colitis 5-ASA
JAK inhibitor